As an increasing number of large astronomy projects such as MeerKAT and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) come online, quantities of scientific data produce will reach a scale never seen before.
New telescopes will detect hundreds of thousands of galaxies out to very large distances as well as various other astronomical objects. Far from pencil and paper calculations this deluge of data will require new and revolutionary methods to explore and understand the Universe we are observing.
In addition, increasingly large and complex super computer simulations of the various components of the Universe are providing massive data sets which can be used to better understand the interplays involved in galaxy formation and evolution.
In both of these cases new techniques such as machine learning will be required to deal with this new era of big data.